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Neuroticism Aspect of Personality Development

The neuroticism aspect of personality development is a spectrum of emotional stability or instability. Neuroticism is one of five major aspects in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) or Big Five personality classification. The neurotic aspect of personality classification acts as a broad personality trait dimension representing the degree to which a person experiences the world as distressing, threatening, and unsafe. Consequently, there are different levels in which someone demonstrates neuroticism. High neuroticism groups emotional instability and heightened reactivity. Low neuroticism groups healthier emotional regulation and less reactivity.

Neuroticism of the Five Factor Model
Neuroticism is one of the main aspects of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality

The modern understanding of the neurotic personality in psychology derives from decades of research. The concept of neuroticism as an aspect of personality development stems from the Big Five personality classification and is determined by a test, but the concept’s origins go back to Sigmund Freud’s theories of neurosis and Hans Eysenck’s personality theory of Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Psychoticism (P) where neuroticism represented instability. Neuroticism is now synonymous with the Big Five system, but researchers have attempted to correlate neuroticism and the other four aspects of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness to other systems like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The two systems are unique and further research is needed to determine correlation, though cross-examination potentially provides beneficial insight for an individual’s personal development.

Psychologists understand neuroticism and the characteristics of a neurotic person as a spectrum of behaviors, traits, and tendencies that present problems, risks, and benefits. Everyone presents some level of neuroticism and therefore exhibits unique qualities we categorize into six facets of characteristics—anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, vulnerability, and impulsivity. Each facet displays a range of characteristics depending on the degree of neuroticism present.

The overall characteristics of neuroticism affect daily life. High levels of neuroticism lead to problems in emotional regulation, leading to risks like impaired relationships, loneliness, and stress sensitivity. That said, neuroticism isn’t inherently negative or bad for personality development. People who exhibit neurotic tendencies benefit from greater empathy, selectivity in relationships, and preparedness in the workplace. Neuroticism additionally affects social skills and how people interact with each other. Those with neurotic qualities are highly empathetic and insightful or anxious depending on the degree of neuroticism and how others perceive them.

What is the definition of neuroticism?

The definition of neuroticism describes a broad spectrum of behaviors relating to emotional stability and how distressing someone experiences the world around them. The spectrum of neuroticism is one of five major personality aspects of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) or Big Five personality classification. Neuroticism in the Big Five model ranges from low to high with low neuroticism describing more adept emotional regulation. Such individuals react less intensely to negative emotions, stress, and challenges. Meanwhile, high neuroticism characterizes reactivity, distress, and sensitivity. Highly neurotic people are more prone to emotional instability, stress, anxiety, and low self-esteem, viewing the world as more threatening than those with low neuroticism. Consequently, neuroticism in psychology groups various behaviors and the degrees to which these behaviors manifest. There is a distinction between high levels of neuroticism and low levels of neuroticism, but everyone displays some degree of neuroticism according to the Big Five model.

The modern concept of neuroticism takes its foundational knowledge from Sigmund Freud’s theories of neuroses, anxiety, and repressed emotions. The broadening of neuroticism as a spectrum gained traction with Hans Eysenck’s personality theory in the 1950s, denoting instability. The concept later became pivotal to the Big Five personality classification and modern research about personality. The understanding and measurement of neuroticism today is a method of describing individual differences in emotional stability and what behaviors manifest.

What is the history of the neuroticism aspect of personality development?

The history of the neuroticism aspect of personality development is broad with modern understanding deriving from the Big Five personality classification. Neuroticism has no single origin, researcher, or location owing to its conception. For example, proto-psychology proposed a rudimentary understanding of neuroticism through Greek physician Hippocrates’ four basic temperaments of choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholic types. Hippocrates’ understanding of melancholia described moodiness which, in contemporary thinking, corresponds to neurotic behaviors and emotional instability. Meanwhile, the foundational knowledge of neuroticism in modern psychology started with Austrian neurologist and father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Freud proposed that repressed emotions and internal conflicts manifest in the unconscious mind from childhood, leading to unstable behaviors. The neurologist’s theory formed the concept of neurosis and a range of disorders describing emotional distress and feelings of unsafety—laying the groundwork for the contemporary examination of neuroticism and its associated behaviors in personality.

The concept of neuroticism evolved, eventually becoming central to German-born British psychologist Hans Eysenck’s personality theories in the 1950s. Hans Eysenck’s theory describes three dimensions of Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Psychoticism (P) in the book, The Dimensions of Personality. Neuroticism in Eysenck’s theory consists of dimensions of emotional instability and moodiness. Additionally, Eysenck defined neuroticism in terms of high or low levels. Decades of research continued into the 1980s when neuroticism became part of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) framework. The FFM, or the Big Five personality classification, is the result of collaborative efforts between multiple researchers, including Lewis Goldberg, Paul Costa, and Robert McCrae–the latter two of whom created the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) according to the FFM framework. The concept of neuroticism thereafter became associated with one of five aspects of personality traits in which neuroticism describes a spectrum of emotional stability or instability.

How does neuroticism affect personality development?

Neuroticism affects personality development according to the associated spectrum of behaviors. Everyone presents neuroticism differently. Therefore, the aspect of neuroticism and its negative or positive influence on personality development and formation varies on the level of neuroticism someone presents. Neuroticism collectively affects the development of emotional stability, anxious tendencies, self-perception, stress sensitivity, coping strategies, and even personal relationships. Neutrocism’s influence on emotional stability has one of the most significant effects as it impacts someone’s emotional regulation and how threatening, distressing, or unsafe they view the world. For example, neurotic tendencies affect sensitivity to stress and how well someone copes with life challenges, such as difficult work deadlines or sudden interpersonal changes. Additionally, the aspect of neuroticism wields influence over someone’s self-esteem and how they might perceive themselves. People with high levels of neuroticism are more prone to low self-esteem, leading to self-criticizing and self-doubting behaviors while someone with low neuroticism is more confident and self-affirming. The consequence of neurotic behaviors on personality goes as far as shaping someone’s relationships. For instance, highly neurotic individuals potentially exhibit an emotionally volatile personality and therefore struggle to form stable relationships. Conversely, low neurotic people are more stable and thus equipped to handle the complexities of interpersonal connections with less fear and anxiety.

The overall effect of neuroticism on personality development and formation isn’t necessarily good or bad. Rather, the effect is complex and depends on the individual, their behaviors, and the level of neuroticism they present. High neuroticism doesn’t inherently correspond to negative behaviors if someone is self-aware and has the right tools or strategies to manage their emotional instability. Likewise, low neuroticism doesn’t ensure solely positive or healthy behaviors. Someone with low neuroticism still experiences challenges and roadblocks that provoke any range of reactions unique to the person and their life.

How is the neuroticism aspect of personality determined?

The neuroticism aspect of personality is determined through two major methods. The first and foremost method is self-report personality assessments. The neuroticism aspect of personality is part of the Big Five personality classification, so tests based on the classification model are predominant. For example, Big Five tests like the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) provide questions that measure neurotic behaviors and tendencies, like emotional stability and reactivity. The results provide a score ranging from low to high neuroticism, as well as information on the associated behaviors and traits corresponding to neuroticism. The second method is professional assessments. Such assessments are done by a researcher, psychologist, or similar who works with the Big Five model. The method usually involves a standardized test, structured interviews, and observations. Professionals use the assessment to determine neuroticism, gain an understanding of an individual’s personality, and provide insight. Professional assessments are additionally less prone to personal bias than self-reports as they’re being conducted by a third party.

What is the prevalence of neuroticism aspect of personality development?

The neuroticism aspect of personality development is more prevalent in women, people below the age of 50, and parts of the Northeast, Midwest, and Southern United States according to three separate research papers. The first research paper, Gender Differences in Personality and Interests, published by Richard A. Lippa in 2010 noted moderate differences in the Big Five aspects of agreeableness and neuroticism with women demonstrating higher levels than men. The paper additionally reported significant personality differences for men and women in global north countries versus global south countries. The second research paper, A Theory of the Emergence, Persistence, and Expression of Geographic Variation in Psychological Characteristics, published by Rentfrow, Gosling, and Potter in 2008 explores the geographic variation of the Big Five traits and reports that neuroticism is the most prevalent in the American Northeast, Midwest, and South. The states of New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, as well as Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana specifically demonstrate the highest prevalence. Meanwhile, a third research paper written by M. Brent Donnellan and Richard E. Lucas in 2009, Age Differences in the Big Five Across the Life Span: Evidence from Two National Samples, reports that levels of neuroticism decline with age as individuals near their 50s and older. Therefore, younger individuals below the age of 50 exhibit higher rates of neuroticism, reaffirming neuroticism as a spectrum that fluctuates.

What is a high neuroticism personality?

A high neuroticism personality refers to the elevated spectrum of neurotic behaviors. High neuroticism characterizes tendencies of hostility, anxious thinking, and impaired self-perception. People who exhibit high levels of neuroticism are consequently emotionally reactive, view the world as distressing or threatening, and are prone to anxious and depressive behaviors like rumination or catastrophizing. Neutorics respond intensely to stressors and life challenges, fearing for the future and things out of their control. Additionally, a personality with high neuroticism exhibits low self-esteem and engages in impulsive behaviors. Interpersonal relationships are likewise rife with challenges for highly neurotic people as they avoid conflict, self-sabotage, and struggle with feeling secure.

Another facet of highly neurotic personalities is their connection to mental and physical disorders. People who are highly neurotic are susceptible to anxiety, depression, substance, and eating disorders according to a 2017 research paper by Thomas A. Widiger and Joshua R. Oltmanns titled Neuroticism is a fundamental domain of personality with enormous public health implications, which focuses on the public health implications of neuroticism. Widiger and Oltmanns additionally report a link to other health issues such as poor cardiac health and impaired immunity, providing a physical connection between neuroticism and the aforementioned psychological tendencies of emotional instability. That said, high neuroticism manifests differently in everyone and it’s possible to cope with elevated behaviors through the appropriate methods, like therapy or self-care.

What is a low neuroticism personality?

A low neuroticism personality refers to a spectrum of emotionally stable behaviors. Low neuroticism characterizes tendencies of emotional regulation, level-headedness, and positive self-esteem. People with low levels of neuroticism consequently manage their emotions better than highly neurotic people, exhibiting fewer mood swings and anxious or depressive behaviors. Such individuals keep their heads up during stressful situations, have less intense reactions to change or criticism, and feel less threatened by the world. They additionally display higher degrees of confidence and self-control. Furthermore, a low neurotic personality maintains stable relationships as they’re equipped with the skills to navigate conflict. That said, low neuroticism does not mean someone doesn’t experience stress, doubt, or struggle with their emotions. Everyone experiences turmoil in their life, regardless of their levels of neuroticism. A low neurotic personality simply groups behaviors and tendencies of emotional stability.

What are the characteristics of neuroticism?

The characteristics of neuroticism vary according to the individual and the range of neuroticism they exhibit. Not everyone demonstrates neurotic behavior similarly, even at high or low levels. That said, there are six facets of neuroticism that group and define characteristics. The first facet of characteristics is anxiety. Highly neurotic people are more anxious and display preparedness, hypervigilance, and rumination behaviors. They additionally tend to fear change and view unfamiliar situations as threatening or unsafe. Meanwhile, individuals on the other end of the spectrum are less prone to anxious behavior and employ adaptive coping strategies in the face of change. The second facet of characteristics is anger and hostility (additionally defined as irritability). People who are highly neurotic demonstrate emotional instability which leads to more intense negative reactions, such as anger in the face of challenges, roadblocks, or adversity. Conversely, people with low levels of neuroticism are emotionally stable and less prone to irritability and hostile reactivity.

The third facet of characteristics is depressive tendencies. People with high levels of neuroticism are susceptible to low moods and feelings of hopelessness or low energy which is enhanced by mood swings and general emotional instability. On the other hand, low neurotic personalities are less susceptible to downturns in mood and manage their sadness more effectively. The fourth facet of characteristics is self-consciousness which affects self-perception. High levels of neuroticism correspond to a negative self-image and self-criticizing tendencies as well as a propensity for shame or unease. Low levels relate to greater self-confidence with individuals feeling less disdain for their perceived faults.

The fifth facet of characteristics describes vulnerability. Individuals who are highly neurotic are more vulnerable to feelings of overwhelm. As a result, they’re more sensitive to stress and respond with perfectionism, overworking, self-criticism, or other negative behaviors in the face of stressors. Less neurotic people handle stress better, coping healthily and staying calm under difficult circumstances. The sixth and final facet of characteristics is immoderation which groups impulsive tendencies. Emotional instability is paramount in high neuroticism which leads to poor self-control. People who exhibit highly neurotic traits consequently give in to their worst inhibitions, making choices they regret later such as sabotaging their health, work, or relationships. Less neurotic people are the opposite; they resist unhealthy impulses and think carefully about their actions.

What are the problems experienced with neuroticism?

The problems experienced with neuroticism center on emotional instability. Everyone experiences emotional distress in their life, but people with high levels of neuroticism are particularly susceptible because they struggle to regulate their emotions. As a result, highly neurotic people tend to have volatile reactions to stressors and experience mood swings. Neurotics will sit and worry about things out of their control to the point that a 2005 study from the Erasmus University Rotterdam authored by Muris, Roelofs, Rassin, Franken, and Mayer titled Mediating effects of rumination and worry on the links between neuroticism, anxiety and depression found a link to neuroticism, rumination, and worry with anxiety and depression. Additionally, emotional instability in high levels of neuroticism contributes to low self-esteem, impairing confidence and self-growth. Emotional volatility stands to strain interpersonal relationships as well, as neurotic people are more sensitive to criticism and dwell on past issues.

It’s possible for people with high levels of neuroticism to overcome or cope with their problems. Furthermore, neuroticism is a spectrum of behaviors and tendencies that are susceptible to change over time. Individuals who recognize their behaviors, realize they have control over their actions, and employ various strategies to combat the unhealthy neuroticism stand to cope with their problems better. Examples of coping strategies include managing stress through a healthy work-life balance, making time for self-care, seeking support from loved ones, and limiting rumination. Neurotic people with mental disorders like anxiety or depression should additionally consider seeking professional help to better their emotional instability and develop effective coping skills.

What are the benefits of having a neurotic personality?

There are four primary benefits of having a neurotic personality that improves daily life. Firstly, neuroticism allows for greater empathy and sensitivity in relationships. People with neurotic tendencies have experience with feeling overwhelmed and unstable, making them capable of understanding and supporting others’ emotional struggles. Neurotics with stronger conflict-resolution skills additionally tap into their experience to provide insights and advice to friends. Secondly, neurotic personalities are more selective about forming relationships due to anxious tendencies. Selectiveness allows for more thoughtful choices in long-term partnerships and friendships. Thirdly, neurotics exhibit preparedness and attention to detail. Such qualities are particularly beneficial in the workplace because they allow individuals to be thorough and avoid risks. Finally, people with high levels of neuroticism fear failure. Fear provokes anxiety but drives neurotic personalities to work hard and stay on task.

What are the risks of having a neurotic personality?

There are four notable risks of having a neurotic personality that impairs daily life. Firstly, people who struggle with neurotic qualities tend to be insecure and sensitive in their relationships. Low self-esteem impacts a neurotic’s self-worth in a relationship as they tend to worry about how others view them. Meanwhile, emotional volatility and anxious tendencies make highly neurotic people sensitive to criticism and prone to sabotage friendships and romantic relationships. Secondly, highly neurotic personalities struggle with loneliness. Ruminating on negative thoughts and worrying about things out of control contribute to hypervigilance and self-isolating to cope. Thirdly, neuroticism risks stress sensitivity, particularly in the workplace. People with high levels of neuroticism struggle to cope with work as they fear disappointing their superiors, leading to overworking and avoiding risks to manage stress. Finally, a risk of neuroticism is the inability to speak up in their daily life. Neurotic people have low self-esteem which means they don’t speak up or voice their opinions for fear of reprisal.

What is the neuroticism aspect of personality development’s relationship to MBTI classification?

The neuroticism aspect of personality development’s relationship to MBTI classification is largely unexplored. The MBTI classification stands for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and covers sixteen personality types as inspired by Carl Jung’s theories. The MBTI focuses on attitude and cognitive functions with set traits and Assertive or Turbulent subtypes. Meanwhile, the neuroticism aspect of personality development is associated with the Big Five personality model. The model describes a spectrum of behaviors, traits, and tendencies under five aspects of personality. The MBTI and the Big Five are consequently separate systems with separate focuses and applications. Researchers have tried to explore potential connections between the two. For example, a 1989 paper by Robert R. McCrae and Paul Costa titled Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the Five-Factor Model of Personality, the creators of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), explores the relationship between the MBTI, Jung’s theory, and the Big Five model. Their findings question the MBTI’s applications but noted that the system does link to four of the Big Five dimensions, suggesting potential applications of FFM to better understand MBTI. However, more research is necessary to understand the direct or potential correspondence between the neuroticism aspect of personality development in the Big Five to the MBTI.

It’s possible for individuals to use both personality classification systems to learn more about themselves. For example, combining the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Big Five personality model provides insights into cognitive functions and emotional dimensions. The aspect of neuroticism particularly provides knowledge on emotional stability and neurotic tendencies that potentially correspond to MBTI traits. This in turn allows for nuanced interpretations according to both systems. For example, people with Introverted (I) attributes and high levels of neuroticism may find a link between their neurotic behaviors and being reactive in social situations. Such interpretations help people discern ways of developing their neurotic personality traits and creating strategies to better manage their Introversion and neuroticism according to test results.

How to deal with a neurotic person?

Dealing with a neurotic person requires empathy, mindful support, and encouraging them to seek professional help in more serious cases. Neurotic behaviors demonstrate risks that impair daily life like stress sensitivity, emotional instability, and insecurity depending on the levels of neuroticism present. The list below details three ways to support a neurotic person if they’re exhibiting highly neurotic and emotionally unstable behaviors.

  • Be empathetic: People with high neuroticism struggle with their emotions due to the volatility of their reactions, lackluster coping skills, and internalized shame. Individuals therefore require empathy and understanding. You should validate a neurotic person’s emotions while respecting their boundaries. Remind them that they’re not alone in their experiences and express your support to better comfort and empathize with them.
  • Offer mindful support: Offering mindful support to someone with neurotic tendencies means actively listening to them and encouraging self-care while avoiding enabling behaviors or criticism. Every person with a neurotic personality is different; some may have more negative traits than others so it’s important to offer support that’s beneficial to their specific needs but doesn’t encourage unhealthy coping like overworking or excessive rumination. You should instead provide practical solutions that don’t disregard their overwhelming emotions.
  • Encourage professional help: High neuroticism is linked to mental health disorders like anxiety and depression. What is characterized as highly neurotic tendencies could be a symptom of a condition. Therefore, consider gently suggesting a neurotic person get professional help if their neuroticism is affecting their daily life. A mental health provider such as a therapist or psychologist is equipped to identify mental illness and help manage highly neurotic behaviors.

Living with a neurotic person requires the above methods in addition to understanding what neuroticism is and if the behaviors are personality traits or symptoms of a mental health disorder. Doing so helps maintain your relationship and deepen your understanding of someone’s behaviors.

How is a neurotic personality in a professional relationship?

A neurotic personality in a professional relationship presents both strengths and struggles. An example of a strength is a neurotic’s ability to prepare and be observant in a professional environment due to their anxious tendencies. This ability is a boon for professional relationships as coworkers and employers are able to trust the individual to pay close attention during meetings and help their teammates plan ahead. An additional strength is a neurotic personality’s drive to succeed. Professional relationships benefit from a neurotic’s drive as they work hard to not disappoint their coworkers.

Struggles and issues arise when neurotic people can’t take criticism or speak up to their superiors. Professional relationships suffer as people with high neuroticism respond poorly to criticism, even when it’s constructive, as they have low self-esteem and worry about what their colleagues think of them. Additionally, a 2020 study by Jia Li and Sen Xu called Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Employee Voice found that neuroticism impairs communication and speaking up to superiors due to emotional exhaustion. Professional relationships consequently suffer as neurotic people will not speak up when necessary.

How is a neurotic personality in the workplace?

A neurotic personality in the workplace is diligent, risk-avoidant, hardworking but sensitive to stress and anxiety. People with moderate to high levels of neuroticism work hard because they fear failure. Paying close attention to details, preparing ahead of schedule, and coming up with creative solutions are a few ways neurotics demonstrate diligence in the workplace. Furthermore, people with neurotic tendencies take fewer risks as they’re fearful of what’s outside their control. This serves as a strength in a stringent workplace but a liability in spaces that encourage out-of-the-box thinking. Other issues and struggles develop in workplaces when people with high levels of neuroticism face stressors such as tight deadlines. Such individuals are inclined to overwork and limit work-life balance which are ineffective methods of coping. Highly neurotic people additionally exhibit anxious tendencies which serve to impair their self-esteem and their communication in the workplace.

How is a neurotic personality in a romantic relationship?

A neurotic personality in a romantic relationship experiences strengths and struggles depending on the individual’s tendencies. For example, people who are aware of and manage their neurotic tendencies make for empathetic romantic partners. They understand their significant others’ emotional struggles and serve to provide insight and support. Neurotic individuals additionally tend to be careful about choosing their partner due to their anxious tendencies. Romantic relationships stand to benefit from careful (albeit hypervigilant) selection as it means neurotic personalities select truly compatible people. That said, high or moderate neuroticism in romantic relationships is susceptible to hypersensitivity, insecurity, and volatile tendencies. People with neurotic qualities struggle with their self-worth which impairs their confidence in relationships. Additionally, neurotic individuals fear conflict and are sensitive to criticism, even refusing to speak up when their feelings are hurt because they want to keep the peace. Meanwhile, individuals with unmanaged tendencies go as far as sabotaging their romantic relationships if they feel threatened or insecure, reacting with volatility to conflict and instability in the connection.

How does a neurotic personality communicate with peers?

A neurotic personality communicates empathetically or anxiously with peers depending on the perceptions and degrees of neurotic tendencies. Neurotic people with strong social skills are empathetic with their peers because they appreciate emotional struggles. Such individuals stand to communicate well with friends and others by offering earnest, relatable advice and insights. Additionally, people with neurotic habits are selective about their connections which makes for more compatible, communicative relationships. On the other hand, high neuroticism communication is anxious and insecure if the individual is overwhelmed or has poor social skills. Highly neurotic individuals are susceptible to anxiety which means they overthink or stress over little things during interactions. Consequently, issues arise for personalities with high neuroticism if they fail to assert themselves or speak up to their peers due to their anxiety. Furthermore, a 2021 study authored by Conaghan, Guthrie, Stendel, and Chavez titled Peer Perceptions of Neuroticism and their Influence on Friendship and the Brain examined peer perceptions of neuroticism and found that people who exhibit neurotic tendencies are viewed as less friendly. Such findings suggest that others struggle to communicate with neurotic individuals due to personal bias, leading to social isolation, loneliness, and relationship problems in those with evident neuroticism.

What are the books about the neuroticism aspect of personality development?

There are two notable books about the neuroticism aspect of personality development. The first book is the Handbook of Child Psychology, Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, a collaborative effort discussing the field of child development. The sixth chapter of the 2007 book Personality Development, which features contributions from Avshalom Caspi And Rebecca L. Shiner, explores individual differences in personality development throughout childhood into adulthood. The chapter highlights neuroticism and children and adults’ predisposition to negative emotions, capturing the anxious and moody behaviors of those with high neuroticism. Additionally, Caspi and Shiner summarize the calmer, stable behaviors of those with low neuroticism. The second book that discusses the neuroticism aspect of personality development is The Big Five Personality Factors: The Psycholexical Approach to Personality by Boele De Raad, written in 2000. It reviews the Big Five model, including its history and applications. De Raad explores the aspect of neuroticism (additionally referred to as “emotional stability”) in the context of the Big Five model and previous psychological frameworks, covering its history and records of applications in developing children, health, and research.

Is neuroticism bad in personality development?

No, neuroticism isn’t necessarily bad in personality development. Neuroticism covers a range of behaviors, traits, and tendencies that affect everyone’s personality differently. Neuroticism additionally presents at different levels of high, low, or somewhere in between. These levels are not stagnant as personality develops and changes over time. Effects of neuroticism in personality development therefore fluctuate. Additionally, people with high neuroticism won’t necessarily have impaired personality development as it’s possible to develop coping skills and identify behaviors to improve how one thinks, feels, and reacts.