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Big Five Personality Traits: Big 5 OCEAN Characteristics Factors

The Big Five personality traits is a taxonomy that categorizes human personality into five factors or attributes. The Big Five traits consist of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, otherwise known as the acronym OCEAN. Each trait corresponds to the Five Factor Model (FFM), another name for the Big Five framework. The model applies factor analysis to identify patterns of human qualities to create a hierarchical organization of five traits and associated qualities, characteristics, and behaviors attributed to each trait.

Five Factor Model of Personality
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) explores human personality and behavior

Each of the Big Five traits pertains to specific definitions of personality. Firstly, openness measures receptiveness to new ideas. Openness is consequently associated with traits of adventurousness, aesthetic sensitivity, emotional intelligence, intellectual curiosity, and psychological liberalism. People with high degrees of openness demonstrate an explorative and creative mindset that tolerates new ideas, whereas those with low openness are unspontaneous and conventional. Secondly, conscientiousness evaluates self-discipline and accountability. Sub-traits such as self-efficacy, cautiousness, persistence, and responsibility correlate to conscientiousness. Consequently, conscientious personalities are dependable and considerate of others’ needs and expectations, while people with low conscientiousness tend to be irresponsible and unreliable. Thirdly, the Big Five trait of extraversion defines social proclivities and responsiveness to external stimuli. Extraversion’s major traits include sociability, gregariousness, energization, and assertiveness among others. Extroverted individuals draw energy from spending time with other humans and exhibit social adaptability. Meanwhile, low extraversion correlates to introversion and unsociable habits. Fourthly, agreeableness is the propensity for cooperation and compassion. The traits correlate to faithfulness, morality, sympathy, selflessness, compliance, and modesty. Agreeable personalities are humble and self-sacrificing while low agreeableness aligns with heightened skepticism and non-compliance. Finally, neuroticism examines emotional instability. Major personality traits such as nervousness, irritability, dejection, self-consciousness, and recklessness are linked to neuroticism. Individuals who test highly for this trait are emotionally reactive. Meanwhile, people with low neuroticism exhibit greater emotional stability and regulation.

The Big Five personality model correlates human personality to its five major traits, but it doesn’t function as a typology like the Myers-Type Indicator (MBTI). The model instead approaches personality through dimensions that individuals either score high, low, or moderately for as opposed to characterizing qualities into archetypes. For example, an individual may score high for conscientiousness and agreeableness, but low for extraversion and moderately for openness or neuroticism. Another key distinction from the Big Five as a taxonomy rather than typology is the prevalence of each trait. Individuals present some degree of each of the five traits and its associated qualities, which means prevalence varies, particularly as individuals age. Adults exhibit different levels of the Big Five traits, whereas the theory of typologies is that types do not change. Resulting measurements of the Big Five traits consequently provide a multifaceted understanding of personality that emphasizes the proclivities or patterns of certain attributes rather than static facets of identity.

The Big 5’s assessment of the dimensions of personality derives from a history of empirical research. For example, the idea that personality traits are communicable through words and associated characteristics derives from British polymath and psychologist Sir Francis Galton. Galton conceived the lexical hypothesis, the idea that personality traits become part of language based on their societal importance, forming the basis of personality taxonomies. American psychologist Gordon Allport later compiled a long list of personality adjectives, which Raymond Cattell later reduced to 16 terms using factor analysis. Lewis Goldberg and a series of contemporary psychologists further developed this into the Five-Factor Model, commonly known as the Big Five, which classifies human personality into five major traits.

The table summarizes the Big Five trait personality, including its definitions and the distinction between high and low scores of each attribute.

Big 5 Personality Traits Definition High Low
Openness Receptiveness to new ideas and experiences Flexible, adventurous, tolerant Conventional, inflexible, practical
Conscientiousness Reflection of self-discipline and accountability Persistent, orderly, perfectionistic Irresponsible, undependable, spontaneous
Extraversion Individual’s social habits and response to external stimuli Socially adaptable, gregarious, energized by social situations Socially inflexible, independent, drained by social situations
Agreeableness Propensity for cooperation and compassion Considerate, cooperative, self-sacrificing Noncompliant, skeptical, competitive
Neuroticism Measurement of emotional instability or stability Emotionally reactive, anxious tendencies, impaired self-perception Confident, level-headed, less susceptible to intense reactions

What are the Big Five personality traits?

The lists below summarize the Big Five personality traits.

  • Openness: Openness is the first of the Big Five or FFM traits and evaluates a person’s receptiveness to new ideas and experiences. Strengths of creativity, expressiveness, tolerance, adaptability, and intellectual curiosity define the behaviors and mindsets of open personalities. Innate weakness of impulsivity, disorganization, impracticality, and overly tolerant and noncommittal tendencies additionally characterize openness. Consequently, high scorers of openness exhibit adventurousness and imaginative, idealistic proclivities whereas low scorers are inflexible and conventional.
  • Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness refers to an individual’s sense of self-discipline and accountability. The trait corresponds to major strengths like self-governance, trustworthiness, punctuality, dependability, and consideration of others’ needs or expectations. Meanwhile, weaknesses such as overcautiousness, inflexibility, perfectionism, and self-criticism characterize the negative tendencies of conscientious personalities. People who score highly for the trait hold themselves to high standards and exhibit a rigid work ethic due to their strengths and weaknesses. Meanwhile, those with low conscientiousness are spontaneous and unfocused.
  • Extraversion: Extraversion is the third Big Five trait and relates to social habits and external stimuli. People with extroverted personalities demonstrate strengths of expressiveness, adaptability, collaborativeness, proactivity, and friendliness. Notable weaknesses such as overstimulation, impulsivity, superficiality, codependency, and lack of self-awareness further define the extraversion trait. Extroverts who score high on the Big Five model are outgoing and find social situations stimulating, whereas those with low levels of extraversion are introverts who prefer to limit external stimulation.
  • Agreeableness: Agreeableness is another Big Five trait corresponding to collaboration and altruism. An agreeable personality exhibits major strengths like empathy, cooperation, compassion, trustworthiness, and attentiveness. Meanwhile, avoidance, indecisiveness, self-sacrifice, inauthenticity, and a lack of boundaries encapsulate the weakness of agreeableness. This means that highly agreeable personalities prioritize others’ needs over their own, whereas low agreeableness correlates to skepticism and heightened autonomy.
  • Neuroticism: Neuroticism is the fifth and final Big Trait. It relates to the emotional stability or instability of individuals. Characteristics such as empathy, preparedness, vigilance, and hyperfocus are associated with neuroticism. However, self-destructiveness, emotional volatility, rumination, and insecurity frame the negative aspects of neuroticism. People who score high for neuroticism are consequently sensitive and emotionally reactive, while those who score low regulate their feelings with greater calm and stability.

1. Openness

Openness is a Big Five trait measuring a person’s willingness to embrace new ideas and experiences. Openness is sometimes referred to as “Openness to Experience” due to its focus on curiosity and exploration. All humans have different degrees of openness and either exhibit high, low, or moderate levels of the trait. People with low openness are largely inflexible and uninterested in breaking conventions or intellectual exploration. On the other hand, people with high levels of openness have open-minded personalities and display major strengths like creativity, expressiveness, tolerance, adaptability, and intellectual curiosity. Such individuals consequently have imaginative inclinations—daydreaming or investing in new ideas outside of their current experiences. That said, openness additionally corresponds to notable weaknesses that are consequences of their innate adventurousness. For instance, open-minded individuals are impulsive, overly tolerant, noncommittal, disorganized, and impractical. High scorers consequently lack self-control—forsaking structure, commitments, and realistic goals for novel ideas and pursuits.

Humans express their openness traits differently due to the unique influences and factors that define a person’s receptiveness. Three key studies highlight these differences based on age and gender. Firstly, Gender Differences in Personality Across the Big Five Aspects by Yanna J. Weisberg, Colin G. DeYoung, and Jacob B. Hirsh denotes differences through the Big Five Aspect Scale. The aspect scale is a measurement tool that separates Big Five traits into two major attributes. Researchers Weisberg, DeYoung, and Hirsh found that men tend to score higher on the Intellect aspect of openness, displaying greater intellectual curiosity. In contrast, women score higher on the creative, aesthetical aspect of openness, demonstrating traits like imagination and artistry. Researchers additionally indicate that gender differences between men and women become less distinct with age. Secondly, Personality Trait Change in Adulthood by Brent W. Roberts and Daniel Mroczek found that openness increases with age, starting from adolescence into the young adult years but decreases as humans pass mid-50s. As a result, adults between the ages of 18 and 55 demonstrate openness qualities by being more adventurous, adaptable, and imaginative whereas older individuals prefer structure, routine, and convention. Finally, a 2005 study from the Universities of Oregon and California, Berkeley titled Can Children Provide Coherent, Stable, and Valid Self-Reports on the Big Five Dimensions? A Longitudinal Study From Ages 5 to 7 found that children as young as 7 exhibit openness traits like intellectual curiosity and creativity, as reported by both the children themselves and their parents and teachers.

The traits and qualities of openness additionally correspond to certain values and occupations, regardless of the individual’s gender or age. For example, people who are open-minded value concepts like innovation, aesthetics, and tolerance. They strive to be creative thinkers who accept new perspectives and find beauty in the world around them. Careers in journalism, travel, and graphic design embody the described values as they allow individuals to express themselves and undertake new experiences that prompt change or exploration. Such careers are therefore well-suited to people with the openness trait.

What are the main personality traits of openness?

Below are the six main personality traits of openness.

  • Adventurousness: Adventurousness is one of the main traits of openness under the Big Five model. Highly open personalities exhibit adventurousness through their interest in new opportunities, often seeking novel experiences and disregarding goals they view as mundane.
  • Aesthetic sensitivity: Aesthetic sensitivity refers to an individual’s interest in visual aesthetics and whether they find concepts like art or beauty important to their life. High scorers of aesthetic sensitivity value beauty and tend to invest in creative pursuits.
  • Emotional intelligence: Emotional intelligence is a trait of openness referring to a person’s emotional attentiveness. People with openness qualities are expressive and in touch with the intricacies of their feelings as well as those of others.
  • Imagination: Imagination relates to the abstract, creative thought processes and fantasizing tendencies of open personalities. Individuals who score high in openness like to think outside the box, daydreaming about new ideas or adventures.
  • Intellectual curiosity: Intellectual curiosity refers to the intellectual proclivities of human personality. High openness means people enthusiastically lean into and explore new ideas, investing in diverse interests to satisfy their inquisitiveness.
  • Liberalism: Liberalism is a quality of openness that refers to a person’s adherence to convention and acceptance of external ideas, customs, or lifestyles. Those with the openness trait are psychologically liberal and readily accept or tolerate ideas outside of their culture, typically disregarding social conventions in the process.
What are the strengths of openness of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main strengths of openness of the Big 5.

  • Expressiveness: Open-minded individuals demonstrate expressive qualities. They’re efficient at communicating which allows them to empathize with others and open up about their negative emotions.
  • Tolerance: Tolerance is a result of the liberalism of openness. Open individuals invest in new perspectives and people, fostering diverse connections and accepting lifestyles outside of their own.
  • Adaptability: Adaptability is a significant strength of openness as it allows people to respond effectively to change. Open personalities are consequently adept at navigating life’s roadblocks or challenges by keeping a flexible mindset.
  • Intellectual curiosity: Intellectual curiosity is a strength of openness referring to intellectual orientation. Curiosity serves as a positive attribute of high openness because it correlates to the scholarly or philosophical exploration of new ideas and interests.
  • Creativity: High scorers of openness are innately creative due to their aesthetic sensitivity. Creativity is a positive quality of openness as it enables individuals to come up with abstract solutions and express themselves through artistic mediums.
What are the weaknesses of openness of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main weaknesses of openness of the Big 5.

  • Impulsivity: Impulsivity is a weakness seen in the spontaneous tendencies and limited self-control of open personalities. Impulsivity negatively affects such individuals as they easily become bored, overly invest in novel experiences, and abandon concrete goals once they become mundane or unadventurous.
  • Non-committing: Open individuals are non-commital which means they neglect or avoid obligations that don’t interest them. People with open personalities are consequently less likely to follow through on promises or responsibilities, potentially negatively affecting their relationships or professional prospects.
  • Impracticality: Impracticality is a weakness of openness stemming from imaginative proclivities. We define impracticality as a negative trait in high scorers as they tend to maintain idealistic or romantic notions that don’t align with reality, frustrating themselves as well as their colleagues or loved ones.
  • Disorganization: Highly open personalities tend to be disorganized. This is a weakness because it prevents stability and structure in one’s life, and leads individuals to neglect realistic, long-term goals that could elevate their lives.
  • Overly tolerant: Open personalities are accepting of others but to a fault. Individuals avoid conflict or are overly tolerant of negative behaviors in the spirit of camaraderie. Doing so is unhelpful as it prevents the promotion of a truly diverse knowledge base or community that is accepting and safe.
Who are the celebrities with open personalities according to the Big 5?

Below is a list of five celebrities with open personalities according to the Big 5 as well as observed characteristics.

  • Madonna: Madonna is a famous American singer-songwriter with openness traits. We see these traits in Madonna through her experimental, eclectic musical and fashion style as she constantly reinvents herself as a diverse artist.
  • Bear Grylls: Bear Grylls is a British adventurer and TV presenter who corresponds to the Big Five trait of openness. Grylls is highly outgoing and actively pursues challenges and novel experiences for the sake of adventure. As a result, Bear Grylls typifies the daring aspect of openness.
  • Lady Gaga: Lady Gaga is an American pop singer and actress with an open personality. Gaga exhibits openness similar to Madonna by experimenting with fashion and exploring new avenues of artistry. For example, Gaga leads a successful and diverse acting career by starring in films like A Star Is Born or House of Gucci while frequently reinventing her style and sound.
  • David Bowie: David Bowie was an English singer-songwriter who corresponded to the openness trait. For example, Bowie was highly inventive, welcoming new perspectives and artistic realms to empower his creative pursuits and redefine glam rock.

2. Conscientiousness

Conscientiousness is a Big Five personality trait that reflects a person’s self-discipline and sense of responsibility. Conscientiousness, as well as the other four Big Five traits, are based on psychological perspectives of trait theory. Trait theory is the idea that personality is composed of patterns of behavior and emotions that define unique qualities. The Big Five model identifies these patterns by utilizing factor analysis to discern major traits like conscientiousness according to a spectrum of associated qualities. For example, individuals who test high for conscientiousness identify with self-discipline whereas those with low conscientiousness are irresponsible and identify with spontaneous tendencies. The method by which the Big Five model recognizes patterns of conscientiousness additionally allows us to group conscientious personalities into ten traits. The first five traits represent the fundamental strengths of conscientiousness such as punctuality, dependability, self-governance, trustworthiness, and consideration. Consequently, conscientious people are adept at maintaining structure and obligations, staying dedicated to their goals and others’ expectations. Meanwhile, the other five traits consist of notable weaknesses such as inflexibility, perfectionism, self-criticism, overcautiousness, and overcommitting. High scorers therefore struggle to adapt to changes and tend to err on the side of caution and maintain impeccable standards due to their weaknesses.

The traits associated with conscientiousness differ among individuals according to three research papers. Firstly, the paper “Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five” utilizes the Big Five Aspect Scale to identify nuanced differences between conscientious men and women. The findings conclude that men are prone to the Industriousness aspect, while women test higher for the Orderliness aspect. This means that conscientious women tend to be more organized and systematized, whereas men are more goal-oriented in their respective pursuits. That said, results for men and women reverse with age, with men becoming more orderly while women are more industrious. Secondly, the study “Personality Trait Change in Adulthood” measured how conscientiousness develops with age. Authors Roberts and Mroczek found that conscientiousness is low among adolescents and people in their 20s, but rises during middle age. Consequently, young adults tend to be spontaneous and undisciplined, while those entering their 40s and beyond are dutiful and responsible. Finally, the study “Can Children Provide Coherent, Stable, and Valid Self-Reports on the Big Five Dimensions?” examines the self-assessment of conscientiousness in young children. Researchers Measelle, Ablow, John, and Cowan found that six and seven-year-olds who viewed themself as highly conscientious were rated as focused and diligent by parents and teachers. Therefore, children are similarly orderly and responsible as adult high scorers.

People with conscientious personalities additionally exhibit notable values because of their associated qualities. For instance, high scorers tend to value being organized and responsible as well as maintaining a diligent work ethic. These individuals find self-efficiency and surpassing obligations gratifying as they’re keen to excel and work hard. Careers like healthcare, scientific research, and finance additionally suit conscientious personalities as these jobs require meticulous oversight and strong organizational skills to keep up with workplace demands.

What are the main personality traits of conscientiousness?

The list below defines the six main personality traits of conscientiousness.

  • Self-efficacy: Self-efficacy relates to an individual’s belief in their abilities and how highly they value their responsibilities. Conscientious individuals exhibit self-efficacy by holding themselves accountable, trusting in their skills, and taking on commitments to meet and overcome challenges.
  • Cautiousness: Cautiousness refers to a person’s vigilance and hesitancy, particularly when it comes to taking risks. Conscientious types tend to be cautious because they value excellence and consequently pay close attention to details or situations to mitigate risk and avoid mistakes.
  • Persistence: Conscientious people are persistent because they’re self-motivated to set goals and strive for major achievements by taking charge of situations. They additionally maintain discipline and focus to ensure their obligations are fulfilled.
  • Self-discipline: Self-discipline is a main trait of conscientiousness as high scorers are adept at controlling their impulses and staying focused. Consequently, people with conscientious personalities excel at self-governance, requiring little oversight to meet goals or follow guidelines.
  • Responsibility: People who test high for conscientiousness demonstrate a keen sense of responsibility due to their self-discipline and persistence. They consistently meet their commitments, working hard to meet or surpass expectations—be it personal or professional.
  • Orderliness: People with conscientious personalities demonstrate orderliness because building strong organizational skills ensures they keep to their schedules and meet their goals, eliminating any disarray or chaos in their lives.
What are the strengths of conscientiousness of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main strengths of conscientiousness of the Big 5.

  • Punctuality: Punctuality derives from the persistence, self-discipline, and orderliness seen in conscientious people. It’s a positive trait as it enables individuals to stay on schedule and demonstrate their innate sense of commitment, such as showing up early to meetings or completing tasks before deadlines.
  • Dependability: Dependability is a strength and positive trait of conscientiousness as it demonstrates a person’s reliability and consistency. For example, colleagues are able to lean on conscientious men and women for aid as they’re keen to help and meet their personal or professional obligations.
  • Self-governance: Self-governance is a strength stemming from the sense of self-discipline seen in conscientious personalities. Self-governance serves as a positive trait as it illustrates conscientious people’s ability to work independently and without oversight.
  • Trustworthiness: Conscientious types are highly responsible and consequently exhibit trustworthiness. Trustworthiness is a positive quality of conscientiousness as it represents an individual’s ability to produce consistent results and be a source of support.
  • Consideration: Conscientious people are considerate because they’re mindful of other people’s needs, goals, and expectations. Consideration is usually positive as it illustrates a person’s sense of accountability, but it sometimes leads to overcommitment and burnout among conscientious types.
What are the weaknesses of conscientiousness of the Big 5?

The following list provides five of the main weaknesses of conscientiousness of the Big 5.

  • Inflexibility: Conscientious people exhibit inflexibility because they value rigid structure and planning. They consequently resist change and find spontaneity stressful which restricts them from new experiences and opportunities.
  • Perfectionism: Perfectionism is a major weakness of conscientious personalities and a consequence of their diligence and persistence. High scorers aim to excel, leading them to impose unrealistic self-standards and face psychological effects like stress or low self-esteem.
  • Overcautiousness: People with conscientious traits exhibit overcautiousness. They approach decisions carefully, which leads to prolonged decision-making and missed opportunities for choices they deem too risky.
  • Overcommitment: Conscientious people tend to overcommit to new tasks or goals. This serves as a major weakness as individuals push themselves beyond their means, leading to stress and burnout.
  • Self-criticism: Self-criticism is a consequence of perfectionism. High scorers of conscientiousness have high standards for themselves, resulting in self-criticism and feelings of shame or self-doubt when these standards are not met.
Who are the celebrities with conscientious personalities according to the Big 5?

Below is a list of four celebrities with conscientious personalities according to the Big 5 and observations of characteristics.

  • Beyoncé: Beyoncé is an American singer with the Big Five trait of conscientiousness. The trait and its associated qualities are observable in Beyoncé through her self-discipline and dedication to her craft. She’s pragmatic in delivering elaborate live performances and stays on task despite the physician, mental, and emotional demands of her career.
  • Tom Hanks: Tom Hanks is an American actor and filmmaker with the conscientious Big Five trait. We observe qualities of conscientiousness in Hanks through his long-standing dedication to the arts, pursuing ambitious obligations through an impressive work ethic that led to highly acclaimed films like Forrest Gump, A Man Called Otto, and Saving Private Ryan.
  • Meryl Streep: Meryl Streep is an American actress and conscientious individual according to observed characteristics. We see conscientiousness in Streep through the meticulous research of her roles, maintaining persistence and self-discipline to accurately represent historical figures like Margaret Thatcher and Julia Child in The Iron Lady and Julie & Julia, respectively.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger: Arnold Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, former politician, and former bodybuilder with conscientious characteristics. Schwarzenegger demonstrates the Big Five trait of conscientiousness by being highly goal-oriented—pursuing ambitious aspirations in film, sports, and politics throughout his life.

3. Extraversion

Extraversion is a Big Five trait referring to an individual’s sociability and responsiveness to external stimuli. Extraversion was initially conceived by Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, in the 1921 book, Psychological Types alongside its opposing concept of introversion. The main difference between Jung’s and the Big Five’s definition of extraversion is that the latter encapsulates a spectrum of behaviors and social traits. Meanwhile, Jung used extraversion to define how people direct their energy and focus. Furthermore, the Big Five model suggests that all humans exhibit some degree of sociality as expressed by degrees of extraversion. Therefore, high scorers register as extroverts while low scorers have low levels of extraversion, otherwise known as introversion.

High scorers of extraversion exhibit ten core traits split into five strengths and five weaknesses. Major strengths of extraversion include friendliness, expressiveness, adaptability, collaborativeness, and proactivity. Extraverts are consequently adept at connecting with others, adapting to different social situations, and collaborating effectively due to their strengths. Meanwhile, major weaknesses of extraversion include overstimulation, impulsivity, superficiality, codependency, and lack of self-awareness. People who score high for extraversion tend to be overwhelmed by constant activity and interaction, leading to hasty decisions and prioritizing the number of relationships over depth or personal boundaries.

Extraversion under the Big Five model corresponds to a spectrum of traits and behaviors that not every adult or gender presents similarly. Two studies and research papers explore how extraversion traits manifest differently. Firstly, Big 5 research in the study “Personality Trait Change in Adulthood” splits extraversion into two sub-traits, social dominance, and social vitality. Researchers Roberts and Mroczek found that adults become more socially dominant as they grow older, starting from their 20s. Meanwhile, social vitality somewhat increases after adolescence but drastically decreases as people age, particularly as they enter their 60s. Consequently, adults become more socially assertive but less gregarious as they enter old age. Secondly, Can Children Provide Coherent, Stable, and Valid Self-Reports?” by Jeffrey R. Measelle details opposing trends for those of a younger age. Self-assessments from kids between the ages of 5 and 7 correlate to less social isolation and greater communication skills. As a result, extroverted kids enjoy being around others and are adept at socializing, whereas adults are socially dominant but less inclined to be gregarious. Finally, a study titled “Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five” explores the differences between male and female extroverts. The study found that women have a stronger propensity for extraversion in general. However, men gravitate towards the Assertive aspect of extraversion while women score higher in Enthusiasm. As a result, male extroverts exhibit socially dominant and outgoing traits, whereas women are more socially spontaneous and energetic.

Extroverts additionally exhibit certain values and occupational preferences that correlate to their traits. For example, individuals who score high in extraversion value open communication, networking, creating meaningful connections, and otherwise approaching life energetically because of their personalities. Extraverts consequently thrive on vibrant interactions and tend to approach life enthusiastically, fostering open and meaningful personal and professional relationships. The traits and values of extraversion extend to career preferences. Acting, event planning, and public relations all mesh well with high scorers because the job requirements involve frequent social interactions, networking, and the ability to engage with diverse audiences—all of which tap into extroverts’ heightened sociability.

What are the main personality traits of extraversion?

The list below defines the six main personality traits of extraversion.

  • Sociability: Sociability is a major personality trait of extraversion that defines social proclivities. Extraverts derive energy from interacting with people, leading them to be friendly and generally adept at forming connections.
  • Gregariousness: Gregariousness is an attribute of extraversion referring to a person’s fondness for company. Extraverts exhibit gregariousness as they’re innately drawn to social settings and prefer to spend time with others.
  • Assertiveness: The assertive trait describes the outgoing, talkative qualities of extroverts. People with extroverted personalities are enthusiastic about social situations, often taking charge and actively engaging with others, even if they’re strangers.
  • Energization: Energization refers to the activity level that extrovert personalities present. High extraversion corresponds to high activity levels such as a fast-paced lifestyle or juggling multiple objectives per day.
  • Stimulation-seeking: Stimulation-seeking is a core personality trait of extraversion. Extroverts exhibit a constant need for external stimulation, such as frequently immersing themselves in busy environments or sensory-intensive activities.
  • Cheerfulness: The cheerfulness of extraversion correlates to a person’s propensity for upbeat or otherwise friendly attitudes. Individuals who score high for extraversion enjoy being around people, leading to a cheerful disposition that draws others in.
What are the strengths of extraversion of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main strengths of extraversion of the Big 5.

  • Friendliness: Extroverts demonstrate friendliness, a strength correlating to their sociability and cheerfulness. Friendliness is a positive attribute of extraversion that’s observable through an individual’s desire to spend time with others and form connections.
  • Expressiveness: Extroverts display expressiveness due to their innate qualities. This serves as a strength as it enables them to be honest about their emotions and communicate efficiently with loved ones and coworkers.
  • Adaptability: Adaptability is a major strength of extraversion stemming from their sociable, energized attitudes. Extroverts display this trait through their orientation to the external world, which allows them to readily adjust to new situations.
  • Collaborativeness: People who score high for extraversion work well with other people. Consequently, collaborativeness is a notable strength of extroverts as they’re quick to engage with coworkers or friends in order to overcome challenges or complete projects.
  • Proactivity: Proactivity is a strength of extraversion that manifests through an extrovert’s forthright and energized mindset. It enables extroverts to take initiative, seize opportunities, and effectively engage with their environment.
What are the weaknesses of extraversion of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main weaknesses of extraversion of the Big 5.

  • Overstimulation: Extroverts require constant stimulation due to their high-energy disposition. Overstimulation consequently serves as a weakness as extroverted personalities risk overwhelming themselves and losing focus due to the volume of activities they tend to juggle.
  • Impulsivity: Impulsivity is a weakness of extraversion and a consequence of their need for external stimulation. Impulsivity leads extroverts to prioritize speed over careful consideration, acting according to their surroundings rather than risk assessment or intellectual evaluation.
  • Superficiality: Extraversion’s sociability is usually a strength. However, it can lead to superficiality as a broad social circle provides a wide network of surface-level connections and a lack of close relationships.
  • Codependency: People who test high for extraversion thrive off social interaction. As a result, extroverts risk being codependent, a weakness that presents through an inability to be alone and a need for social validation
  • Lack of self-awareness: Extroverts sometimes lack self-awareness due to their social nature. This presents as a weakness because it causes extroverts to ignore their personal limits and blur the lines of appropriate boundaries with others.
Who are the celebrities with extroverted personalities according to the Big 5?

Below is a list of four celebrities with extroverted personalities according to the Big 5 and observations of characteristics.

  • Miley Cyrus: Miley Cyrus is an American singer and actress with the extraversion Big Five trait. We observe Cyrus’ extraversion through her cheerful disposition as a child star and vivaciousness as a musician who enjoys building new professional connections.
  • Will Smith: Will Smith is an American actor and rapper who demonstrates extraversion qualities. Smith’s extraversion is evident through his outgoing and friendly public persona as he often exhibits an energetic disposition and willingness to interact with new people, such as in his series, Welcome to Earth.
  • Elvis Presley: Elvis Presley was an American singer and king of rock n’ roll whose persona corresponded to extraverted traits. For example, Presley was naturally drawn to the spotlight and exhibited sociable, assertive qualities through live performances and on-screen charisma.
  • Jim Carrey: Renowned actor and comedian Jim Carrey exhibits the Big 5 trait of extraversion. This trait is observable through Carrey’s vivacious on-screen performances, presenting a highly outgoing and sociable disposition in famous roles in The Mask and How the Grinch Stole Christmas.

4. Agreeableness

Agreeableness is one of the Big Five personality traits evaluating one’s propensity for cooperation and compassion. Agreeableness consequently correlates to social orientation, similar to extraversion. Individuals with high agreeableness are considerate of others’ needs whereas those with low agreeableness center their own needs and desires. All humans exhibit some level of agreeableness with high scorers corresponding to ten core traits. Five of the traits relate to the key strengths of empathy, cooperation, compassion, trustworthiness, and attentiveness. As a result, highly agreeable personalities are caring and collaborative, particularly when it comes to helping others or fulfilling obligations. The remaining five traits of agreeableness correspond to fundamental weaknesses of avoidance, self-sacrifice, indecisiveness, inauthenticity, and a lack of boundaries. These weaknesses mean that people who are agreeable tend to avoid conflict, sacrificing their boundaries and acting inauthentically or indecisively regarding their own needs and opinions.

Four studies demonstrate how traits of agreeableness differ in individuals depending on their age or gender. Firstly, Gender Differences in Perceived Traits of Men and Women by Emily R. Bunnett found that women score higher in agreeableness than men. Secondly, “Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five” likewise states female participants present higher proclivities for agreeableness. The same study additionally employed the Big Five Aspects Scale and found that women scored high for both aspects of agreeableness, which are Compassion and Politeness. The first and second studies therefore indicate women tend to present empathetic, considerate, compliant, and cordial traits more often than men. Thirdly, “Personality Trait Change in Adulthood” examines the correlation between aging and agreeableness. Results conclude that patterns of agreeableness grow as adults age, significantly increasing in the mid-40s into the 50s. Middle-aged and older adults tend to be more agreeable than younger adults, exhibiting traits like cooperation and politeness more often. Finally, “Can Children Provide Coherent, Stable, and Valid Self-Reports?” examines the presentation of agreeableness in young children. Self-reports of high agreeableness of kids aged 5 to 7 matched parents and teachers’ observations. Consequently, young children with agreeable personalities are less oppositional and more compliant, similar to adult personalities.

The qualities of agreeableness additionally relate to values and beliefs individuals present due to their traits. For example, highly agreeable personalities value harmony and teamwork because of their considerate tendencies. Keeping the peace by being empathetic and working with others additionally allows agreeable people to engage in prosocial behaviors and nurture fulfilling interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, high scorers of the trait resonate with occupations like counseling, education, and activism. Such careers suit agreeable personalities because they align with their altruistic tendencies, allowing individuals to give back to their communities and be part of a team.

What are the main personality traits of agreeableness?

The list below defines the six main personality traits of agreeableness.

  • Faithfulness: Faithfulness is a personality trait of agreeableness referring to an individual’s trust and belief in the world around them. Faithfulness is an important facet of agreeable personalities as it means high scorers tend to see the goodness in everyone and trust others at their word.
  • Morality: Morality is a trait relating to innate kindness and compassion of high agreeableness. A strong sense of morality illustrates how agreeable individuals tend to follow their internal code of ethics and strive for harmony.
  • Sympathy: The moral sense of high agreeableness leads to sympathy. This trait is evident in how high scorers are quick to provide their adept listening skills to support others and offer a helping hand.
  • Selflessness: Selflessness is a personality trait describing the altruistic tendencies of agreeable types. Such individuals work towards the greater good, going above the call of duty to help others—be it by providing emotional support or acts of charity.
  • Compliance: Agreeableness relates to the trait of compliance. Agreeable people are compliant by nature because of their desire to function harmoniously with others and conform to rules or expectations.
  • Modesty: Agreeable types demonstrate modesty through their accommodating personalities. Individuals stay humble, minimizing their ambitions or contributions to uplift others.
What are the strengths of agreeableness of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main strengths of agreeableness of the Big 5.

  • Empathy: Empathy is a strength of agreeableness evident in a person’s ability to be considerate and understanding of others’ needs. Empathy serves as a positive trait as it enables agreeable types to foster connections and help those around them.
  • Cooperation: The strength of cooperation stems from the compliant nature of agreeableness. People who score high in agreeableness work well with others, positively enabling stronger connections and conflict resolution.
  • Compassion: Compassion is a strength of agreeableness relating to altruistic qualities. Compassion motivates agreeable personalities to help others and be empathetic to the struggles and experiences of their fellow humans.
  • Trustworthiness: Agreeable types trust in the goodness of other people by likewise acting trustworthy. This is a significant strength of the Big Five personality trait as it fosters goodwill and shows that agreeable people are dependable.
  • Attentiveness: Attentiveness is a strength of agreeableness manifesting through keen listening skills, sympathy, and cooperation. High scorers pay close attention to the needs of others, lending an ear or sympathetic perspective when necessary.
What are the weaknesses of agreeableness of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main weaknesses of agreeableness of the Big 5.

  • Avoidance: Avoidant behavior is a weakness due to agreeable individuals’ desire for harmony and cooperation. Such behavior negatively affects high scorers as they tend to steer clear of confrontation, even if it’s the only path to conflict resolution.
  • Self-sacrifice: High degrees of agreeableness prompt self-sacrifice due to the associated moral and modest qualities. Self-sacrifice is a weakness because agreeable types forsake their own needs and boundaries to accommodate others.
  • Lack of boundaries: Agreeable people exhibit a lack of boundaries because they often struggle to say no. Such behavior is evident through over-compliance and accommodating others by sacrificing one’s well-being.
  • Inauthenticity: Highly agreeable personalities are moral but sometimes present inauthenticity due to their desire for harmony. For example, people who score high for agreeableness modify their behavior or opinions to suit the whims of others if it means keeping the peace.
  • Indecisiveness: Indecisiveness is a weakness of agreeableness stemming from over-compliance and modesty. People who score high for agreeableness rely on others to direct them, negatively affecting their confidence and decision-making skills.
Who are the celebrities with agreeable personalities according to the Big 5?

Below is a list of four celebrities with agreeable personalities according to the Big 5 and observed qualities.

  • Oprah Winfrey: Oprah Winfrey is an American talk show host who exhibits an agreeable personality. We observe the Big Five trait of agreeableness in Winfrey through her prolific altruism. Pursuits like the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls capture the empathetic and compassionate proclivities of the talk show host.
  • Bill Gates: American billionaire and philanthropist Bill Gates demonstrates the agreeableness trait according to the Big Five. We infer Gates’ personality traits through his extensive philanthropic work, pledging considerable funds to support various causes throughout his lengthy career.
  • George Clooney: George Clooney is an American actor with an agreeable personality. Clooney’s traits are evident in his activism for the Darfur conflict and advocacy for victims of war and violence—all of which align with the empathetic qualities of agreeableness.
  • John Cena: John Cena is an American professional wrestler and actor who displays the Big Five trait of agreeableness. Cena’s compassion and cooperative nature align with the trait as he enjoys caring for others as evident through his extensive activities granting wishes for children through the Make-A-Wish organization.

5. Neuroticism

Neuroticism is the fifth of the Big 5 personality traits and measures an individual’s emotional instability. Low or high scores in neuroticism exemplify how distressing or unsafe the world appears to be and the resulting behaviors or qualities a human exhibits. People with low neuroticism are level-headed and less susceptible to intense reactions. Meanwhile, people with high neuroticism are emotionally reactive and tend to struggle with their emotions. That said, a neurotic personality who scores high on the Big 5 test isn’t without strengths. For example, neurotics exhibit strengths of sensitivity, preparedness, vigilance, hyperfocus, and selectiveness. Neutroics empathize with the emotional struggles of others while their elevated senses allow them to stay on point at work, catch small details, and plan in advance. On the other hand, neuroticism corresponds to weaknesses of self-destructive tendencies, insecurity, hypersensitivity, rumination, and general emotional volatility. High scorers of neuroticism are at the mercy of their fears and anxiety and, without proper coping skills, struggle with self-perception and destructive habits.

The traits of neuroticism present differently depending on an individual’s age and gender according to five studies. The 2011 study Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five as well as Gender Differences in Perceived Traits of Men and Women published in 2020 found that women tend to exhibit greater levels of neuroticism as a broad characteristic. Women additionally scored higher for the Withdrawal aspect according to the 2011 study which utilized the Big Five Aspect Scale. Meanwhile, men scored higher for the Volatility aspect, particularly among participants who identify as white. Consequently, we characterize female neurotics as being anxious, insecure, and avoidant due to their association with the Withdrawal aspect whereas male neurotics are irritable and hostile. A third study published by Roberts and Mroczek in 2008, Personality Trait Change in Adulthood, reports that emotional stability steadily improves with age and stabilizes at midlife. This means that adults become less neurotic with age with young people in their adolescent years and 20s exhibiting emotionally volatile traits. Meanwhile, a fourth study by Ehrler, Evans, and McGhee in 1999 called Extending Big‐Five theory into childhood: A preliminary investigation into the relationship between Big‐Five personality traits and behavior problems in children linked neuroticism to anxiety and depression in children between the ages of 9 to 13. Children who score high for neuroticism tend to be emotionally unstable and fearful of the world. The book on childhood development, Handbook of Child Psychology, Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, corroborates the fourth study’s finding by defining neuroticism in children as being prone to “self-critical statements, expressing a sense of self-pity and guilt, acting irritated, and showing signs of physical tension”— all which correspond to adult traits.

The behaviors and inclinations of neuroticism present emotional challenges for high scorers. However, the trait alone isn’t an indicator of a low quality of life or unhappiness as all humans exhibit neuroticism to some degree. Furthermore, neuroticism corresponds to positive values that are beneficial to a person’s lifestyle if they’re a high scorer. For example, neurotic personalities value routine, structure, social support, and empathy as these facets help individuals feel more secure and safe in the world. Occupations like writing, painting, and caregiving are additionally favorable for people with neuroticism traits. Creative pursuits of writing and painting allow neurotics to express their oftentimes intense emotions, whereas caregiving provides them with the chance to capitalize on their innate sympathy and preparedness by anticipating another person’s needs.

What are the main personality traits of neuroticism?

The list below defines the six main personality traits of neuroticism.

  • Vulnerableness: Vulnerableness refers to neurotics’ susceptibility to negative and overwhelming emotions. The vulnerability of people with neuroticism encapsulates individuals’ stress-induced behaviors, such as overthinking and overworking.
  • Nervousness: Nervousness is a major personality trait of neuroticism illustrating an individual’s proclivity for hypervigilance. Nervousness is key to neuroticism as it characterizes how neurotic personalities fear the worst and ruminate over negative situations.
  • Irritability: The trait of irritability refers to the propensity for aggression. People who score high for neuroticism struggle with instability, becoming hostile and reactive in the face of difficult situations.
  • Dejection: Dejection is a major trait of neuroticism describing depressive tendencies. Dejection helps define neurotic personalities’ recurring low moods and feelings of hopelessness, both of which stem from their emotional instability and lack of regulation.
  • Self-consciousness: Self-consciousness is a trait associated with neuroticism and defines the self-critical aspect of people’s personalities. Neurotic types are prone to self-image issues as they frequently question their capabilities, appearance, or similar.
  • Recklessness: Recklessness is a trait characterizing the impulsive and sometimes self-destructive qualities of neuroticism. Neurotic personalities tend to lack self-control due to their emotional instability and subsequently act or lash out without thinking.
What are the strengths of neuroticism of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main strengths of neuroticism of the Big 5.

  • Sensitivity: Sensitivity is a strength of neuroticism observable through the support and understanding individuals display. Neurotics’ heightened responsiveness makes them more attuned and empathetic to the emotional struggles of loved ones.
  • Preparedness: Preparedness is a key strength of neuroticism that curbs reckless proclivities. Individuals with a neurotic personality are susceptible to impulsivity, but a sense of caution enables them to avoid spontaneous actions and think through their decisions.
  • Observant: Neurotic types are observant and attentive to detail due to their hypervigilant qualities. This serves as a strength in the workplace, allowing them to catch mistakes and self-correct.
  • Hyperfocus: The emotional instability and reactivity of neuroticism provide a sense of hyperfocus that potentially acts as a strength. The attentive qualities of neuroticism derive from stressors, which, when coped with effectively, allow neurotics to zero in on a task and act efficiently.
  • Selectiveness: Neurotics are cautious as they view the world as distressing or threatening. Consequently, high scorers display selectiveness, a strength that enables them to carefully consider partners and jobs that are truly compatible with them.
What are the weaknesses of neuroticism of the Big 5?

The following list consists of the five main weaknesses of neuroticism of the Big 5.

  • Insecurity: People with degrees of neuroticism exhibit insecurity because of their self-conscious mindset. Insecurity serves as a weakness as it skews their self-perception and contributes to feelings of shame and self-doubt that are difficult to regulate.
  • Hypersensitivity: The emotional instability of neuroticism results in hypersensitivity. This serves as a weakness for people with neurotic personalities as they’re more vulnerable to negative situations and grow irritable, anxious, or fearful as a result.
  • Rumination: Rumination is a notable weakness of the neuroticism Big 5 personality as it encapsulates anxious tendencies. People with neurotic qualities tend to dwell on negative experiences or the possibility of negative experiences, questioning their abilities and relationships with others.
  • Emotional volatility: Emotional volatility is another significant weakness of neuroticism. We see emotional volatility in neurotic people’s intense reactions to certain situations as well as their lack of self-control and emotional regulation—all of which stand to negatively affect their well-being without effective coping skills.
  • Self-destructiveness: Neuroticism often manifests as self-destructiveness which is a consequence of their emotional instability. Neurotic people are typically cautious, but limited coping skills or anxiety sometimes feed into self-destructive actions, such as sabotaging relationships due to their own insecurity.
Who are the celebrities with neurotic personalities according to the Big 5?

Below is a list of four celebrities with neurotic personalities according to the Big 5 and observed qualities.

  • Kanye West: American rapper Kanye West displays characteristics of neuroticism. We correlate neuroticism with West because he’s prone to emotional, impulsive decisions, often making provocative remarks about politics or fellow celebrities he later recants.
  • Demi Lovato: Demi Lovato is an American singer with neurotic qualities. Neuroticism is observable through Lovato’s struggle with reckless behavior, namely substance abuse which she’s combated through her art and rehab stays.
  • Courtney Love: Courtney Love is an American grunge idol who exhibits neuroticism. We associate Love with neuroticism under the Big Five model because she demonstrates emotional intensity, often lashing out with her words on social media. Love additionally struggled with substance abuse, thus aligning her with the self-destructive and reckless tendencies linked to neuroticism.
  • Charlie Sheen: American actor Charlie Sheen’s personality correlates to neuroticism according to the Big Five model. We infer Sheen’s personality due to his prolific history of erratic behavior, demonstrating qualities and reactions aligning with the emotional volatility of individuals who score high for neuroticism.

What is the origin of the Big Five personality traits?

The big five personality traits originated through a series of empirical research and psychological assessments beginning with Sir Francis Galton. Galton was a British psychologist whose research led to the development of the lexical hypothesis. Galton used the lexical hypothesis as a foundational concept that argued that language adds vocabulary to describe important personality traits. For example, the more a behavior is described throughout society, the higher the likelihood it becomes part of the language. The lexical hypothesis highlights the importance of personality trait classification in defining identity. The Big Five’s trait terminology stems from the research of Gordon Allport, an American psychologist studying personality. Allport’s research resulted in an exhaustive list of adjectives to describe human personality. Personality psychologists studying Allport’s list sought ways to categorize and reduce the list to exclude similar words or synonyms. This led Raymond Cattell to make waves in personality psychology with his work on Allport’s trait terminology. Cattell used factor analysis to determine that 16 terms classify human personality and those 16 terms can be broken down into five factors or groups. Subsequent research on trait taxonomy stems from Lewis Goldberg, an American psychologist who constructed the Five-Factor Model of personality, or Big Five.

Who are the psychologists who contributed to Big 5 personality traits?

Below are the psychologists who contributed to Big 5 personality traits.

  • Sir Francis Galton: Sir Francis Galton was a British polymath and psychologist who was the first to create a taxonomy of human personality by studying linguistic evolution’s effect on personality trait development in 1884. Galton’s theory is called the lexical hypothesis and suggests the likelihood of society developing language to describe a personality trait increases with the popularity of that trait. The lexical hypothesis is the basis for personality trait theories like the Big 5.
  • Gordon Allport: Gordon Allport was an American psychologist who was instrumental in founding personality psychology. Allport used Galton’s hypothesis to categorize people according to all listed adjectives. Allport’s research culminated in a list of 4504 adjectives that describe observable human traits and behaviors.
  • Raymond Cattell: Raymond Cattell was a British-American psychologist who created the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire using factor analysis. Cattell took Gordon Allport’s research and reduced the 4504 adjectives to a list of 16 primary personality factors.
  • Hans Eysenck: Hans Eysenck was a German-born British psychologist who categorized personality into two dimensions. Eysenck argued that people have either high or low Extraversion or Neuroticism, which became part of the Five-Factor model.
  • Donald Fiske: Donald Fiske was an American psychologist who pioneered the multitrait-multimethod matrix for analyzing the convergent and determinate validity of human traits. Fiske used factor analysis to assess multiple pieces of information to determine there are five factors of personality—social adaptability, emotional control, conformity, inquiring intellect, and confident self-expression.
  • Ernest Tupes: Ernest Tupes was a psychologist who conducted personality assessments through the United States Air Force. Tupes’ research compared Cattell’s and Fiske’s personality trait theories and showed five personality factors that form the basis of the five-factor model.
  • Lewis Goldberg: Lewis Goldberg was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to the Big Five model. He conducted extensive research to validate and refine the model, confirming its viability as a personality taxonomy and constructing the Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire to assess the traits.
  • Walter Mischel: Walter Mischel was an Austrian-American psychologist who argued against the Big Five’s 5 characteristics. Mischel believed that personality traits were inconsistent and couldn’t be used as a definitive guide for personality assessment.

Who is Sir Francis Galton?

Sir Francis Galton was a British polymath and psychologist who founded psychometrics, a field of psychology devoted to psychological measurements and tests. Galton studied at both King’s College and Trinity College and went on to discover psychometrics and the lexical hypothesis. The lexical hypothesis is Galton’s theory that language changes to describe personality traits. The more people resonate with a particular trait, the more likely language will develop to adopt a term to describe that personality trait. Galton’s lexical hypothesis became the basis for personality trait theories and frameworks like the Big 5.

How did Gordon Allport help the taxonomy of human personalities?

Gordon Allport was an American psychologist at Harvard University who studied trait theory using the lexical hypothesis to conduct his research on personality taxonomy. Gordon Allport helped the taxonomy of human personalities by classifying personality into three levels. Allport first published his thoughts on human personality classification in his paper “Personality Traits: Their Classification and Measurement,” which classifies human personality into intelligence, temperament, self-expression, and sociality. Allport went on to work with Henry Odbert to determine that there are 4,504 adjectives to describe human behavior and traits, which fall into the cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits. Firstly, cardinal traits are rare and control a person’s life. For example, a power-hungry ambitious person who is passionate about their success and strength showcases a cardinal trait of ambition. Secondly, central traits are characteristics found in every person. For example, every person displays some degree of sociability. Thirdly, secondary traits only appear in certain circumstances and are less common compared to central traits. For example, a person who is shy while they’re alone, but becomes less shy in a group of people has a secondary trait of shyness. The 4504 adjectives as the cardinal, central, and secondary would go on to influence Raymond Cattell and the broader framework of the Big Five model of future psychologists by setting the foundation for a personality taxonomy.

What is the contribution of Raymond Cattell to Big 5 personality traits?

Raymond Cattell was a British-American psychologist who has two main contributions to Big 5 personality traits. Firstly, Raymond Cattell made use of factor analysis to conduct his research on trait psychology. Cattell’s empirical approach drove him to use the largest datasets available to perform a comprehensive analysis. For example, Cattell used Gordon Allport’s list of adjectives and reduced it by excluding words with similar meanings. Secondly, Cattell’s psychological studies led to the creation of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The 16PF is a self-assessment that Cattell created to measure personality traits. The 16PF forms a foundation for the five-factor model and the Big 5 assessment method.

How did Raymond Cattell use factor analysis for the Big 5?

Raymond Cattell used factor analysis for the Big 5 by grouping a central list of adjectives into different clusters of similar words. Factor analysis is a statistical method to describe variables in terms of factors. Raymond Cattell worked alongside Charles Spearman who was developing factor analysis to understand human capabilities. The psychologist used factor analysis to take the work of Gordan Allport and worked to categorize his 4504-word list into smaller group variables. Cattell’s use of factor analysis acts as a basis for the five-factor model of personality, or Big 5.

How did Raymond Cattell use 16PF Questionnaire for Big 5 personality analysis?

Raymond Cattell used the 16PF Questionnaire for Big 5 personality analysis by reducing the known list of personality traits to 16 core factors and establishing 5 foundational factors. Cattell’s research argues that there are five core factors, which are used to categorize each of the 16 traits. The five factors from Cattell’s research are similar to the Big 5 factors in the following ways. Firstly, the openness aspect aligns with the 16PF factor of openness or tough-mindedness. Secondly, the conscientiousness aspect is similar to the lack of restraint or self-control 16PF trait factor. Thirdly, the extraversion aspect connects with the 16PF factor of extraversion or introversion. Fourthly, the agreeable aspect relates to 16PF’s accommodation or independence. Fifthly, the neuroticism aspect is similar to the 16PF trait factor of low anxiety or high anxiety.

Why did Hans Eysenck focus on “extraversion” and “neuroticism” personality traits?

Hans Eysenck focused on “extraversion” and “neuroticism” personality traits to explain what causes a person’s personality to form. Hans Eysenck was a German-born British psychologist who studied intelligence and personality, focusing on measuring both. Eysenck first mentions extraversion and neuroticism in his 1947 book Dimensions of Personality. Firstly, Eysenck defines extraversion as having a high level of sociability and excitability due to high cortical inhibition. Secondly, Eysenck defines neuroticism as nervous, overly sensitive, and higher reactivity of the limbic system. The five-factor model of personality uses extraversion and neuroticism as two of the five core factors of determining a person’s personality.

What are the differences of personality trait terms of Donald Fiske?

Donald Fiske was an American psychologist who studied methodological issues in personality and trait research. Donald Fiske’s personality trait terms have the following five differences. Firstly, Fiske identified social adaptability as a personality trait factor. Fiske’s social adaptability describes the ability to adapt to social situations and differs from the Big 5’s extraversion because of a desire to adapt rather than derive energy from socializing. Secondly, emotional control is a personality trait term that describes a person’s ability to control their emotions, as opposed to the Big 5’s neuroticism’s inability to control emotions. Thirdly, Fiske identified conformity as a personality trait factor that describes a person’s need to fit in with others. Conformity differs from the Big 5’s agreeableness trait because conformity adjusts behaviors while agreeableness largely urges a person to match another’s beliefs but remain modest and humble. Fourthly, inquiring intellect is a personality trait Fiske described as the desire to seek knowledge. Inquiring intellect differs from the Big 5’s openness to experience because openness largely encourages a person to go and experience life, while an inquiring intellect urges a person to educate themselves. Fifthly, confident self-expression is a personality trait term described as having the ability to articulate thoughts and feelings. Confident self-expression differs from other personality terms, such as conscientiousness, because it encourages a person to consider themselves over being conscientious toward others.

Why is Ernest Tupes important for using Big 5 personality traits?

Ernest Tupes is important for using Big 5 personality traits because Tupes was one of the first scientists to conduct a personality assessment resembling the Big 5. Ernest Tupes worked with Raymond Christal in the 1960s to research the personality traits of United States Air Force members. Their research compared the work of Raymond Cattell and Donald Fisk, finetuning their analysis. The concluding investigation revealed a basis of five factors that comprise a person’s personality. The five factors that Tupes reported consist of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism, which became the core traits of the Big Five.

What are the arguments of Walter Mischel for the Big Five personality factors?

Walter Mischel argues that personality traits are inconsistent across social situations. The arguments of Walter Mischel for Big Five personality factors consist of two concepts. Firstly, Walter Mischel argues in his 2013 book, Personality and Assessment, that a change in situation affects the results of the Big Five Personality Factor assessment. For example, OCEAN psychology argues that a person’s openness to experience is consistent despite the situation. A person who is open to trying new food with their friends should be open to solo travel experiences as well, according to the Big Five. However, Mischel’s research shows that a person’s situation influences their personality traits. Secondly, Walter Mischel argues that previous behaviors do not predict future behaviors. For example, a person who acts considerate of another person one day isn’t guaranteed to show conscientiousness toward that same person another day.